Wednesday, 12 December 2018

Industrial Methods for Peeling Fruit and Vegetables

Industrial Methods for Peeling Fruit and Vegetables

Below are described some industrial methods for peeling fruit and vegetables.

Dry Caustic Peeling 

Dry caustic peeling methods can greatly reduce the volume and strength of the wastewater from the peeling operation and allow for the collection of peel as a pumpable slurry. The use of caustic in peeling may lead to pH fluctuations in the wastewater. Some produce (e.g. tomatoes) requires strong caustic solutions and the addition of wetting agents. Dry caustic peeling tends to have a lower caustic consumption than wet methods.

Flash Steam Peeling

Flash steam peeling is a batch process. Most of the peeled material is discharged with the steam, which results in the collection of a concentrated waste stream. Remaining traces are sprayed off with water. The process has a lower water consumption than other “wet” peeling methods.

Knife Peeling

In knife peeling, the materials to be peeled (fruits or vegetables) are pressed against stationary blades (material to be peeled is rotating) or rotating blades to remove the skin. Knife peeling is particularly used for citrus fruits where the skin is easily removed and little damage is caused to the fruits.

Abrasion Peeling

In abrasion peeling, the material to be peeled is fed onto carborundum rollers or fed into a rotating bowl, which is lined with carborundum. The abrasive carborundum surface removes the skin, which is then washed away with water. The process is carried out normally at ambient temperature. This has a significantly higher product loss than flash steam peeling (25% loss compared to 8–15% loss) and considerably more liquid effluent.

Flame Peeler 

Developed for onions, a flame peeler consists of a conveyer belt which transports and rotates the material through a furnace heated to temperatures above 1000°C. The skin (paper shell, root hairs) is burned off. The skin is removed by high pressure water sprays.

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Thursday, 6 December 2018

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - Intro

It is not very often that a film can meet all of the expectations set by a book that precedes it. Cloud Atlas does a fair job, I have seen few movies that remain a true to the original text.

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - The Book

The book is slightly difficult to get into there are 6 stories which we need to become familiar with before we can start to get in to the book as a whole.

Each of these stories is a fairly simple affair on its own, yet when intertwined such as they are they make for a complex and engaging read.

The stories are linked via breadcrumbs. The characters are not necessarily related, but there are small clues or artifacts left from one time period to the next. This "breadcrumb-ing" is a little confusing. It relates the stories to one another but does not mesh the stories as one entity.

When read I found myself trying to write more significance in to these breadcrumbs than was actually required. You suspect that a book, or a letter, or a piece of music would have a meaningful effect on a later (histricaly) part of the storey, but it does not.

Of course the characters are all fantastic, and the details and personalities involved are a joy to know. It was a thoroughly entertaining read.

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - The Film

This was never going to be an easy film to make. I found that the "breadcrumbs" that were just passing sentences in the book, were inserted as paragraphes within the film. I knew from the book they were insignificant in terms of plot , but a visual cues they became a distraction.

In short to make this an excellent film you would need to to be lord of the ring length. The level of detail required to uphold each of the stories is just not possible in the time given.

The more historic the film is the better is looks, the more futuristic parts, are CGI heavy (as you would expect) but a bit cartoonish. Perhaps this is in reference to the japanese styling . . .I am not sure.

Lastly, although it is great fun to see the actors dressed up in so many different roles. Spotting who is who actually becomes a bit of a distraction from the storey. It must have been a hoot for the actors to play so many characters in one film. Tom hanks does a great job . . and Hugh Grant! Who knew?

I loved the book, which I why I have written my thoughts here. I think the film is excellent, and would rate it 5 stars for its daring alone.

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - Which is Best?

The book of course. You can only build in enough character development in a book. If the film were 4 hours long then perhaps there would be more time for that. It took 10 hours or more to read the book, which shows the level to which the storey has been condensed. 


Monday, 26 November 2018

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - Intro

Just £23 for a pair of these Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 tires on Ebay at the moment, and as such I have pruchased these with an aim to building up an off road / MTB type bike. I haven't owned a pair of mount bike tires for years.

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - First Impressions

These are folding tires, and come zip tired to a plastcu hanger. The rubber has a supple feel to to it and the tires unfold nicly. Mounting them on the rims (EX325) was easy, and the nbeads seated well. I used innertubes when insttaling these Mopunt Baldy Tires from Arisun. The knobs are small, and although I havn't ridden on these yet they should roll quiote well.

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - Width

These Mount Baldy Tires are lablled as 2.5" but this is misleading, they are 2.35". LAbelled at 559-60 size in ETRO sizing this 60mm width is accurate, but a imperial conversion of 60mm is 2.35" not 2.5" so this is misleading.

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - More Pictures

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - Conclusions

I will update this post when I have finshed the bike and gone for a ride. The tires ceratinly seam fair quality, and for the price I paid are unlikly to disapoint. The mount well, have a quality finsh, and are not excessivly knobbly. 

Tuesday, 20 November 2018

Schwalbe AV13 AV13F and AV13D Comparison

Schwalbe AV13 AV13F and AV13D Comparison - Intro

First off, this comaprsion would apply also to SV13,  SV13F and SV13D. The AV and SV at the front of each inner tube type denotes the type of valve. AV is schrauder, the SV is presta.

But why write a comparison . . .we hopefully it will save you some time:

AV13 AV13F AV13D
 General Description

 This is a normal width tube for use in normal size tires. 1.5 to 2.5", although better used for tires up to 2"  This is a wider tube (but not a lot wider) that weigh the same as a normal tube, so is a bit thinner.  This is the same thickness as a normal AV13 tube and a bit wider. But again not much wider.

190g  185g  290g

 £4  £8  £6
Schwalbe Blurb

A standard Schwalbe tube holds the air considerably longer. Due to the purity of the rubber compound. Due to the uniform wall thickness.  Large volume. Low Weight.  Extremely robust. A reinforced rubber base protects against dreaded valve shearing off. Only in Downhill sizes. If you want large volume with low weight, choose Extralight
Thorpy's Rating 5/5 4/5 5/5

Below I have includedsome pictures of the tubes laid out next to one another. From left to right, AV13, AV13F and AV13D. As you can see there is not a great deal of width differnce between them.

Schwalbe AV13 AV13F and AV13D Comparison - Conclusions 

Whilst the Standard Tube (AV13) is very good quality and will fit nealry all tires sizes, the AV13 costs considerbaly more and offers little in teh way of befits other then the slightly wider size it can be inflated too. The AV13F is also the most expensive of all three tubes.

The AV13D is worth using if you have a wider tire. But the Michelin C6 is in by opion a better tube, as it is wider out of the box, and requires less streching to get up to size.

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ESDM Report

Wednesday, 17 October 2018

How to Fix Broken USB Charging Socket

If you are plugging a charging lead in to a socket and it is not work, it may be the socket itself, perhaps the contacts have become worn or damaged.

You should first try a few different charging leads to see if this helps. Also some devices need more than 0.5A current to charge so try a wall socket charger, rather than a USB socket on a computer.


The problem here is that when you try to remove the old socket ( I presume female micro USB) you may damage the board.

You will need a soldering iron and solar and buy a cheap micro usb lead from ebay with a female socket. If you use a lead you will avoid any mismatch in sizes, as the lead is bendy. Strip the wires and solder these on to the solder blobs at the rear of the broken socket. Another option might to be bend open the socket and solder on to the contacts inside there.

Before yo do this you will need to drill a hole for the lead and thread it through. Tie a knot in th lead to stop it pulling against the solder. Knot should rest on inside of casing with slack to prevent pulling on solder joints. Seal around cable with glue of some sort. Best silicone.

So best case you would end up with female lead poking out of casing. Which you can then charge into.

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Tuesday, 16 October 2018

Arty Emojis

Art Emojis

Please find below a selection of arty Emojis you are free to copy these for whatever reason you like. They are my own images.

Arty Emojis - Delirious Emoji

Arty Emojis - Worried Emoji

Arty Emojis - Angry Emoji


Arty Emojis - Alien Emoji

Arty Emojis - Stupid Emoji

Arty Emojis - Scream Emoji

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Monday, 17 September 2018

How to Build a Hovel

1 - Why Build a Hovel?

The pleasure of being outdoors is often spoiled by rain and cold weather. Those summer evenings when you sit and contemplate life over a glass of red wine, whilst listening to the birds and the wind in the trees start to become less frequent come late summer / early autumn.  

We all love a good shed, or a hut, or a log cabin, but these generally disconnect you from the outdoors. Enter the hovel! A quick to build open sided "structure" enabling you to enjoy the outdoors even when cold and rainy. 

A Bout 4 Hours to Build - Not Counting Stove

It is a nice place to go if you are an indoor worker. It is a "different" place to chill to signify a Friday. It is a bolt hole to escape from world pressures. 

2 - Where to Build a Hovel?

Not in plain site, these are ugly shelters that will annoy most people. Of course you could make a pretty one, but then it would take on another name like a gazebo or something. 

Something like this goes best in the corner of a garden partially obscured behind a large bush, or a short piece of fencing.

3 - How to Build a Hovel?

Build a shack or hovel with whatever you have to hand. You may need to buy some bits and bobs such as wood, plastic sheeting, screws. You also need a heat source, please see detail in Chapter 5.

4 - How I Built my Hovel?

I used a sheet of 8 x 4 ply, for a floor. You don't really need a floor, but it will keep your feet warmer in the winter. I used some willow staves for uprights, and cross pieces, and then screwed various corrugated sheeting off cuts on to three sides. I then stapled some woven polyester type material over one other side, leaving the front open. A plank of wood is used for a bench seat.

5 - Heating for your Hovel

Unless you live in Equatorial Guinea you will need a source of heat. I have made a chiminia type thing out of an old gas cylinder. There are lots of ideas for making a DIY wood stove, that you can follow, but most require welding.

However, mots towns have some one who can weld, you may live on the same street as a hobbiest that will weld for you, for a small fee. Ask around.

A balloon gas cylinder, and a few length of pipe is all you need. You could do the ducting you self with a hack saw blade, and then get someone to do the welding for you.

Ventilation ducting or steel down pipe make a cheap chimney. Because the sides of the hovel are open, air can circulate and so a few leaks may not matter too much, although wood smoke is full of carcinogens, and maybe CO1 so a good chimney is better.

6 - Video Tour of Hovel

7 - Conclusions

A fun project. Ask any question in comments please.

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