Wednesday, 12 December 2018

Industrial Methods for Peeling Fruit and Vegetables

Industrial Methods for Peeling Fruit and Vegetables

Below are described some industrial methods for peeling fruit and vegetables.

Dry Caustic Peeling 

Dry caustic peeling methods can greatly reduce the volume and strength of the wastewater from the peeling operation and allow for the collection of peel as a pumpable slurry. The use of caustic in peeling may lead to pH fluctuations in the wastewater. Some produce (e.g. tomatoes) requires strong caustic solutions and the addition of wetting agents. Dry caustic peeling tends to have a lower caustic consumption than wet methods.

Flash Steam Peeling

Flash steam peeling is a batch process. Most of the peeled material is discharged with the steam, which results in the collection of a concentrated waste stream. Remaining traces are sprayed off with water. The process has a lower water consumption than other “wet” peeling methods.

Knife Peeling

In knife peeling, the materials to be peeled (fruits or vegetables) are pressed against stationary blades (material to be peeled is rotating) or rotating blades to remove the skin. Knife peeling is particularly used for citrus fruits where the skin is easily removed and little damage is caused to the fruits.

Abrasion Peeling

In abrasion peeling, the material to be peeled is fed onto carborundum rollers or fed into a rotating bowl, which is lined with carborundum. The abrasive carborundum surface removes the skin, which is then washed away with water. The process is carried out normally at ambient temperature. This has a significantly higher product loss than flash steam peeling (25% loss compared to 8–15% loss) and considerably more liquid effluent.

Flame Peeler 

Developed for onions, a flame peeler consists of a conveyer belt which transports and rotates the material through a furnace heated to temperatures above 1000°C. The skin (paper shell, root hairs) is burned off. The skin is removed by high pressure water sprays.

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