Wednesday, 12 December 2018

Industrial Methods for Peeling Fruit and Vegetables

Industrial Methods for Peeling Fruit and Vegetables

Below are described some industrial methods for peeling fruit and vegetables.

Dry Caustic Peeling 

Dry caustic peeling methods can greatly reduce the volume and strength of the wastewater from the peeling operation and allow for the collection of peel as a pumpable slurry. The use of caustic in peeling may lead to pH fluctuations in the wastewater. Some produce (e.g. tomatoes) requires strong caustic solutions and the addition of wetting agents. Dry caustic peeling tends to have a lower caustic consumption than wet methods.

Flash Steam Peeling

Flash steam peeling is a batch process. Most of the peeled material is discharged with the steam, which results in the collection of a concentrated waste stream. Remaining traces are sprayed off with water. The process has a lower water consumption than other “wet” peeling methods.

Knife Peeling

In knife peeling, the materials to be peeled (fruits or vegetables) are pressed against stationary blades (material to be peeled is rotating) or rotating blades to remove the skin. Knife peeling is particularly used for citrus fruits where the skin is easily removed and little damage is caused to the fruits.

Abrasion Peeling

In abrasion peeling, the material to be peeled is fed onto carborundum rollers or fed into a rotating bowl, which is lined with carborundum. The abrasive carborundum surface removes the skin, which is then washed away with water. The process is carried out normally at ambient temperature. This has a significantly higher product loss than flash steam peeling (25% loss compared to 8–15% loss) and considerably more liquid effluent.

Flame Peeler 

Developed for onions, a flame peeler consists of a conveyer belt which transports and rotates the material through a furnace heated to temperatures above 1000°C. The skin (paper shell, root hairs) is burned off. The skin is removed by high pressure water sprays.

Custom Lithium Battery

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Thursday, 6 December 2018

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - Intro

It is not very often that a film can meet all of the expectations set by a book that precedes it. Cloud Atlas does a fair job, I have seen few movies that remain a true to the original text.

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - The Book

The book is slightly difficult to get into there are 6 stories which we need to become familiar with before we can start to get in to the book as a whole.

Each of these stories is a fairly simple affair on its own, yet when intertwined such as they are they make for a complex and engaging read.

The stories are linked via breadcrumbs. The characters are not necessarily related, but there are small clues or artifacts left from one time period to the next. This "breadcrumb-ing" is a little confusing. It relates the stories to one another but does not mesh the stories as one entity.

When read I found myself trying to write more significance in to these breadcrumbs than was actually required. You suspect that a book, or a letter, or a piece of music would have a meaningful effect on a later (histricaly) part of the storey, but it does not.

Of course the characters are all fantastic, and the details and personalities involved are a joy to know. It was a thoroughly entertaining read.

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - The Film

This was never going to be an easy film to make. I found that the "breadcrumbs" that were just passing sentences in the book, were inserted as paragraphes within the film. I knew from the book they were insignificant in terms of plot , but a visual cues they became a distraction.

In short to make this an excellent film you would need to to be lord of the ring length. The level of detail required to uphold each of the stories is just not possible in the time given.

The more historic the film is the better is looks, the more futuristic parts, are CGI heavy (as you would expect) but a bit cartoonish. Perhaps this is in reference to the japanese styling . . .I am not sure.

Lastly, although it is great fun to see the actors dressed up in so many different roles. Spotting who is who actually becomes a bit of a distraction from the storey. It must have been a hoot for the actors to play so many characters in one film. Tom hanks does a great job . . and Hugh Grant! Who knew?

I loved the book, which I why I have written my thoughts here. I think the film is excellent, and would rate it 5 stars for its daring alone.

Cloud Atlas - Book vs Film - Which is Best?

The book of course. You can only build in enough character development in a book. If the film were 4 hours long then perhaps there would be more time for that. It took 10 hours or more to read the book, which shows the level to which the storey has been condensed. 


Monday, 26 November 2018

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - Intro

Just £23 for a pair of these Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 tires on Ebay at the moment, and as such I have pruchased these with an aim to building up an off road / MTB type bike. I haven't owned a pair of mount bike tires for years.

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - First Impressions

These are folding tires, and come zip tired to a plastcu hanger. The rubber has a supple feel to to it and the tires unfold nicly. Mounting them on the rims (EX325) was easy, and the nbeads seated well. I used innertubes when insttaling these Mopunt Baldy Tires from Arisun. The knobs are small, and although I havn't ridden on these yet they should roll quiote well.

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - Width

These Mount Baldy Tires are lablled as 2.5" but this is misleading, they are 2.35". LAbelled at 559-60 size in ETRO sizing this 60mm width is accurate, but a imperial conversion of 60mm is 2.35" not 2.5" so this is misleading.

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - More Pictures

Arisun Mount Baldy Tire Review 26 x 2.50 - Conclusions

I will update this post when I have finshed the bike and gone for a ride. The tires ceratinly seam fair quality, and for the price I paid are unlikly to disapoint. The mount well, have a quality finsh, and are not excessivly knobbly. 

Tuesday, 20 November 2018

Schwalbe AV13 AV13F and AV13D Comparison

Schwalbe AV13 AV13F and AV13D Comparison - Intro

First off, this comaprsion would apply also to SV13,  SV13F and SV13D. The AV and SV at the front of each inner tube type denotes the type of valve. AV is schrauder, the SV is presta.

But why write a comparison . . .we hopefully it will save you some time:

AV13 AV13F AV13D
 General Description

 This is a normal width tube for use in normal size tires. 1.5 to 2.5", although better used for tires up to 2"  This is a wider tube (but not a lot wider) that weigh the same as a normal tube, so is a bit thinner.  This is the same thickness as a normal AV13 tube and a bit wider. But again not much wider.

190g  185g  290g

 £4  £8  £6
Schwalbe Blurb

A standard Schwalbe tube holds the air considerably longer. Due to the purity of the rubber compound. Due to the uniform wall thickness.  Large volume. Low Weight.  Extremely robust. A reinforced rubber base protects against dreaded valve shearing off. Only in Downhill sizes. If you want large volume with low weight, choose Extralight
Thorpy's Rating 5/5 4/5 5/5

Below I have includedsome pictures of the tubes laid out next to one another. From left to right, AV13, AV13F and AV13D. As you can see there is not a great deal of width differnce between them.

Schwalbe AV13 AV13F and AV13D Comparison - Conclusions 

Whilst the Standard Tube (AV13) is very good quality and will fit nealry all tires sizes, the AV13 costs considerbaly more and offers little in teh way of befits other then the slightly wider size it can be inflated too. The AV13F is also the most expensive of all three tubes.

The AV13D is worth using if you have a wider tire. But the Michelin C6 is in by opion a better tube, as it is wider out of the box, and requires less streching to get up to size.

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ESDM Report

Wednesday, 17 October 2018

How to Fix Broken USB Charging Socket

If you are plugging a charging lead in to a socket and it is not work, it may be the socket itself, perhaps the contacts have become worn or damaged.

You should first try a few different charging leads to see if this helps. Also some devices need more than 0.5A current to charge so try a wall socket charger, rather than a USB socket on a computer.


The problem here is that when you try to remove the old socket ( I presume female micro USB) you may damage the board.

You will need a soldering iron and solar and buy a cheap micro usb lead from ebay with a female socket. If you use a lead you will avoid any mismatch in sizes, as the lead is bendy. Strip the wires and solder these on to the solder blobs at the rear of the broken socket. Another option might to be bend open the socket and solder on to the contacts inside there.

Before yo do this you will need to drill a hole for the lead and thread it through. Tie a knot in th lead to stop it pulling against the solder. Knot should rest on inside of casing with slack to prevent pulling on solder joints. Seal around cable with glue of some sort. Best silicone.

So best case you would end up with female lead poking out of casing. Which you can then charge into.

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Tuesday, 16 October 2018

Arty Emojis

Art Emojis

Please find below a selection of arty Emojis you are free to copy these for whatever reason you like. They are my own images.

Arty Emojis - Delirious Emoji

Arty Emojis - Worried Emoji

Arty Emojis - Angry Emoji


Arty Emojis - Alien Emoji

Arty Emojis - Stupid Emoji

Arty Emojis - Scream Emoji

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Monday, 17 September 2018

How to Build a Hovel

1 - Why Build a Hovel?

The pleasure of being outdoors is often spoiled by rain and cold weather. Those summer evenings when you sit and contemplate life over a glass of red wine, whilst listening to the birds and the wind in the trees start to become less frequent come late summer / early autumn.  

We all love a good shed, or a hut, or a log cabin, but these generally disconnect you from the outdoors. Enter the hovel! A quick to build open sided "structure" enabling you to enjoy the outdoors even when cold and rainy. 

A Bout 4 Hours to Build - Not Counting Stove

It is a nice place to go if you are an indoor worker. It is a "different" place to chill to signify a Friday. It is a bolt hole to escape from world pressures. 

2 - Where to Build a Hovel?

Not in plain site, these are ugly shelters that will annoy most people. Of course you could make a pretty one, but then it would take on another name like a gazebo or something. 

Something like this goes best in the corner of a garden partially obscured behind a large bush, or a short piece of fencing.

3 - How to Build a Hovel?

Build a shack or hovel with whatever you have to hand. You may need to buy some bits and bobs such as wood, plastic sheeting, screws. You also need a heat source, please see detail in Chapter 5.

4 - How I Built my Hovel?

I used a sheet of 8 x 4 ply, for a floor. You don't really need a floor, but it will keep your feet warmer in the winter. I used some willow staves for uprights, and cross pieces, and then screwed various corrugated sheeting off cuts on to three sides. I then stapled some woven polyester type material over one other side, leaving the front open. A plank of wood is used for a bench seat.

5 - Heating for your Hovel

Unless you live in Equatorial Guinea you will need a source of heat. I have made a chiminia type thing out of an old gas cylinder. There are lots of ideas for making a DIY wood stove, that you can follow, but most require welding.

However, mots towns have some one who can weld, you may live on the same street as a hobbiest that will weld for you, for a small fee. Ask around.

A balloon gas cylinder, and a few length of pipe is all you need. You could do the ducting you self with a hack saw blade, and then get someone to do the welding for you.

Ventilation ducting or steel down pipe make a cheap chimney. Because the sides of the hovel are open, air can circulate and so a few leaks may not matter too much, although wood smoke is full of carcinogens, and maybe CO1 so a good chimney is better.

6 - Video Tour of Hovel

7 - Conclusions

A fun project. Ask any question in comments please.

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Wednesday, 12 September 2018

TL-MR6400 Firmware Update - For Bandwidth Monitoring / QoS

TL-MR6400 Firmware Update - For Bandwidth Monitoring / QoS
Below is a chat string, in which I discovered that apparently you can update firmware to get bandwidth control. 
Jonil.A5:10 pmGood day to you! We will be glad to help you out with your inquiry.
KermitHi I have a TL-MR6400 and would like to throttle bandwidth in 3G/4G mode please. How do I do this. I have have version 2 firmware, which supports this in wirless only mode, does version 3 support in 3g 4g mode?
Please let me check
for this model, once that you are using a sim card on it, it will automatically switch from 3G to 4G, it depend on the signal that the router is getting from the cellular Provider
KermitNo you misunderstand. I wish to throttle bandwidth. Reduce bandwidth. I have a 50GB 4G data plan, and it is used up too fast.
Jonil.AI see
so what you mean is the bandwidth control
KermitCorrect :-)
Jonil.AOne moment
on this router you can allow specific data allowance per month
KermitI have seen that. But I would like to limit bandwidth, I thin this is also called QoS on some products. Can I create a "rule" to do that if so how please.
Jonil.Afor this is doesn't have option for it
WillWhat about version 3 of the firmware?
Jonil.Ayou can't update to the hardware version
the only thing that upgradable is the firmware
KermitYes. I have version 2. If I used Version 3 does this have QoS or Bandwidth Control?
Jonil.Alet me check
Yes the Version 3 has Bandwidth Control
KermitIs this for "4G" mode or "Wireless Router" mode?
I have read this page already.
Jonil.ABoth mode jas it
KermitI have a UK model TL-MR6400, can you send me a link for the correct firm ware please.
Jonil.Aone moment
Would there be anything else I can assist you today?
KermitThis link is for version 2 firmware. Can I install version 3?
Jonil.AThat is correct for V 2, no your router might got brick if you use the firmware from version 3
KermitFirmware Version:
1.0.12 Build 170627 Rel.66669n
Hardware Version:
MR6400 v2 00000000
Jonil.Athis it the latest version for you router
TL- MR6400(EU)_V2_180508
KermitOK Thank You Jonil.A. Have a nice day. I require no more help.
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Illustrator Devon

Energy Strategy

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Tuesday, 11 September 2018

Top 5 Garden Shredders

Top 5 Garden Shredders - Intro

I havn't actually used any of the below, but I have assembled this list based on internet reviews, and intended to purchase the one I think is best. We have quiet a large garden so I need one that will last, and is lower end industrial grade, although upper end domestic may suffice.

I typically buy branded stuff.

Top 5 Garden Shredders - Hyundai HYCH7070E - £800

Catchy name. Thsi shredder is a petrol powered offering from well know manufacturer Hyundai, it has a 7hp engine and looks like it can kick bottom.

Top 5 Garden Shredders - The Handy PDS65 - £700

Another petrol beast. This employs a flail to mash feed material. I have used flails shredder before the have a tendency to get clogged because they cut in line with the grain of the wood producing long fibers which wrap around the cutting drum.

Top 5 Garden Shredders - BOSCH AXT 25TC - £400

This shredder gets good reviews and is also quiet. Bosch normally make pretty good stuff, so you could take reassurance from that.

Top 5 Garden Shredders - Makita UD2500 - £300

Perhaps similar quality to the Bosch, but less payout for name.

Top 5 Garden Shredders - Titan TTB353SHR - £80

A very cheap offering that get very good reviews.

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List of Cool Artists

Work in Progress, just somewhere for me to keep record of stuff I like:

Philip Alexius de László

Lindsay Rapp


Slava Prishedko

Rémi LaBarre

Friday, 31 August 2018

DIY Passenger Handles for Cargo Bike

DIY Passenger Handles for Cargo Bike

It cost a fortune to buy ready made passenger / grab handle for cargo bikes such as the Yuba Mundo or the Xtracycle. Why not make you own with some wood. Plywood is best. You will need a jigsaw and some sand paper, fabric tape optional. Some screws and a screwdriver. 

A stiff wooden hand lke this is good, because it does not move around, unlike a rope loop or similar which is lousy for keep balance when the driver brakes. 

Aim is to make a some rigid handle that kids or other passenger can hang on to to stop them falling off when you wizz around corners etc.

Simply cut out a shape, similar to above using a jigsaw. You could use a brad-saw, or even the saw on a swiss army knife if you are patient. 

Attach the handle by screwing up through the base of the rear deck, use fairly long screws you want about 2" / 50mm of screw in the handle after it has gone through the deck. If you deck is plastic drill some pilot holes. 

Done, sane done splintery edges, and then you could wind some tape around the grips. I used some cloth tape I had hanging around. Video on bike here.

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Monday, 27 August 2018

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build - Intro

This is a series of photos on the construction of a TPA3116 2.1 Channel Potable Speaker. The speaker uses wooden casing, up-cycled driver units, a 12v battery and can be adapted to run on main power also. If you would rather watch this on You Tube then please click here > TPA3116 Build Video

Finished Thing

TPA3116 is an amplifier, which runs on a variety of voltages. This "2.1" variant has stereo speaker out puts but also a third channel of sub-bass. This is my second build with this amplifier and it works well.

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build - Shopping List

For this project you will need the following. However, please do not be afraid to substitute materials, or even the amplifier board itself, for another model. For a smaller speaker you might try the PAM8610 which is a good little amplifier. For a very small speaker you might try the PAM8403.

I should also point out that if you are using recycled driver units, and they are still in the speaker case, why not re-use the case as well. You could glue, screw or bolts the two speaker together, and mount all wiring in side the speaker. This would avoid costs of buying wood.

For my speaker I used:

  • 12mm Shuttering Ply - Main cabinet / box
  • 9mm OSB (thin sheet wood - speaker grill support)
  • Screws
  • Two Part Filler
  • Paint (Optional)
  • Fabric or Cloth or Mesh
  • Amplifier Board
  • Speaker Cable
  • 12V to 24V boost convertor
  • Switch
  • 3.5mm jack cable
  • Driver Units
  • Insulation tape

  • Drill / Electric Screw Driver
  • Jig Saw
  • Tape Measure
  • Soldering Iron
  • Solder
  • Pencil

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build - Using Recycled Speakers

Making the box is perhaps the most demanding part of the whole project. As mentioned above perhaps re-use you speaker cabinets if you are recycling. I had some large sony speakers and the cabinets were fiar quality (not very weather proof though) and could have been bolted together, and used as is. 

Most speakers will have 2 or 3 driver units inside. 

Once you have removed the driver units from their original cabinet have a look on the rear of the speaker to try and figure out what ohm rating they have. For this project 4ohm speakers are best, but 8 ohm are OK, although the speaker will be quieter overall.

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build - Speaker Holes

You will need half a 4 x 8 sheet of ply to make this cabinet. Plywood is good, because you can get it wet, unlike MDF which swells when wet. Shuttering ply is a low garden water resistant ply, which can be sourced from most builders merchants.

Before you cut the panels, cut the holes for the speakers, it is easy to use a jig saw when the board is still in one piece.

Cut holes for driver units.

Try ou the driver units frequently to check fit. 
Do not make the mistake of drawing around the driver unit and then cutting, the hole need to be large enough that the screw holes sit on the wood.

Mark past inner edge of screw hole.
Rest the driver unit where the hole is intended, then mark the very inner most edge of the screw hole. Do this for all the screw holes. Then take away the driver units and join up the marks to make a cut circle.

Cut Line Smaller than Full Diameter

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build - The Cabinet

Once you have cut your speaker holes (for mounting driver units) you can continue with the rest of the cabinet. The front panel of the cabinet is the deciding factor in term of measurements for the rest of the cabinet / box. Take care cutting this panel, to ensure it is square.

Taking Shape

Cut the sides the same size as the front panel. Cut the top and bottom the same BUT 24mm wider to account for overall. Always cut bigger if you are unsure. You can always cut off excess with the jig saw although this results in a messy finish.

Blood, Sweat . . . but no Tears
Once the cabinet is complete you can paint it, and add a front mesh cover. This could be stapled in place or glued, or anything really. Just have fun choosing what ever you have laying around and do it!

Feet Made from Stiff Foam

Bass Port Doubles as Handle for Carrying

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build - Electronics

You could run this speaker on any number of different power supply's. I have compiled a list in a separate post: Power Supply Choices for TPA3116. I have also made some notes on the general performance of the TPA3116 amplifier board.

At 24V (max voltage) you are building a 40W amplifier. It is a class D amp, very efficient, so you get a lot of noise for those 40W RMS.

Hopefully your board came with a wiring diagram. This will show you which wire go in which clamps etc. Here I am running 2 x 8ohm speakers run paralleled to give 4 ohms.

Board Mounted on Steel Plate or Plastic Sheet Material
The board is supported using the 3 potentiometers, that control volume, treble, and bass. You could use the mounting holes also, but I find this unnecessary. 

A 12V battery feeds a 12V to 24V boot converter. This is better than 2 x 12V batterys, as 2 x 12V batteries linked in series can be 28V fresh off charge which is too many volts! 24V is maximum.

The power switch on the side of you build, should switch the BOOSTER on and off.

Externally, cut a neat hole, and then drill holes in this for RCA Sockets, Volume Knobs and Toggle Switch. Finally, you can add two protruding bolts, that can be used to charge the battery without opening the cabinet up every-time.

TPA3116 2.1 Speaker Build - Conclusions

On completion you will have a loud speaker that give very good low bass sound. The cost can be a bit high, but for me this was becuase of the wood. I bought a 4' x 8' of plywood, why cost £40. But I still have over half left. . . . the battery would also be a significant cost.

Total cost disregarding these would be £20, with the added bonus that you can fix it when it breaks. You built it after-all. Oh! Its pretty heavy.

If you would rather watch this on You Tube then please click here > TPA3116 Build Video

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